Five Pillars of Islam
1 ~ Shahadah ~ This is when you believe in one god and one god only, Allah. The first thing applies to monotheism. The belief in only one God. Second part is that Muhammad is God's messenger. Only spreading the word of Islam. Shahadah is not that they believe in God but, their submission to God. They also accept there is a world of the unseen (angels, paradise (Heaven) and stuff like that). Muslims also believe that ALL souls will reach Judgement Day. On that day God (Allah) will decide who will go to paradise (Heaven) or not.
2 ~ Salat ~ This is daily ritual prayer. Muhammad said “Prayer is the proof” of Islam. Salat reinforces discipline, spirituality and closeness to Allah. Muslims pray five times a day. Dawn, noon, midday, sunset and nightfall. A muezzin calls people to prayer. Before praying, Muslims have to clean their hands, face, arms and feet for a “purified” sense. Then they enter the prayer area. There they line up, no matter what class, shoulder to shoulder. Men in one line, woman in another. Children under the age of 12 did not have to pray.
3 ~ Zakat ~ The Almsgiving. The word Zakat itself means purification. So during this time wealthy Muslims give money or items to the less fortunate. 2.5% of their earnings/possessions must be given away during this time. And they are encouraged to donate even more than 2.5%. To give the money away they sometimes give it to government officials to give away or they do it themselves. But back when Islam was first rising Zakat used to be a public thing.
4 ~ Siyam ~ Fasting. The Qur'an tells Muslims to fast for a month during the month of Ramadan (the ninth month). Ramadan is said to be when Angel Gabriel told the message to Muhammad. During this time people could eat before dawn and sunset. But pregnant women, non muslims, kids and unhealthy people don't have to fast. At the end of Ramadan a celebration is held. It is called Eid al-Fitr.
5 ~ Hajj ~ This is the Holy Pilgrimage to Mecca. In the twelfth month of Islam, millions of people come to the Makkah. Each Muslim is expected to make the journey to the Hajj once in their lifetime. At the Hajj it represents equality. During 5 days they dress in white robes (the same as everyone elses).